Fast Document Database In .NET With Marten

Fast Document Database In .NET With Marten

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Did you know you can turn PostgreSQL into a fully-fledged Document database?

Marten is a .NET library that allows developers to use the PostgreSQL database as both a document database and a fully-featured event store.

You don't need to install anything else to be able to use PostgreSQL as a document database, outside of the Nuget package. Marten relies on the JSONB support available since PostgreSQL 9.4.

In this week's newsletter, I want to introduce you to the basics of working with Marten and show you how easy it is to get started.

Let's dive in.

Installing And Configuring Marten

What are you going to need to start using PostgreSQL as a Document datbase?

Other than a running instance of PostgreSQL, of course, you will need to install the Marten Nuget package:

dotnet add package Marten

Marten can build the required database schema and necessary tables on the fly, and I suggest using this approach in development. For a production environment, you definitely want to apply schema changes on your own with migration scripts.

To register Marten with dependency injection, you need to call the AddMarten method.

Here's an example Marten configuration inside of a .NET 7 application:

builder.Services.AddMarten(options =>
{
    options.Connection(builder.Configuration.GetConnectionString("Marten"));
});

This will register a few services with dependency injection:

  • IDocumentStore - used to create sessions, generate schema migrations, and do bulk inserts
  • IDocumentSession - used for read and write operations
  • IQuerySession - used for read operations

Let's see how we can work with documents using Marten.

Storing Documents With Marten

Storing documents in the database is very straightforward. You need to create a new DocumentStore instance, and open an IDocumentSession which exposes methods for storing and persisting documents.

Let's see how we can store a Product document:

var store = DocumentStore.For("Connection string to PostgreSQL");

using var session = store.OpenSession();

var product = new Product
{
    Name = "C# 11 and .NET 7 - Modern Cross-Platform Fundamentals",
    Price = 46.87
};

session.Store(product);

await session.SaveChangesAsync();

We're creating a new DocumentStore instance which we use to open a session to PostgreSQL. And then we just call Store and pass in the Product instance. Note that Marten will populate the Product.Id at this point. Marten can populate keys of Guid, int, long, and other data types. It uses the HiLo algorithm for numeric keys. Finally, when we call SaveChangesAsync the Product is serialized into JSON and persisted as a document.

An important thing to be aware of is that the IDocumentSession created by OpenSession doesn't track changes on the entities automatically. You need to create a session with dirty checking enabled by calling DirtyTrackedSession on the DocumentStore to enable automatic change detection.

Querying Documents With Marten

Marten has rich support for querying documents in the database. You can write and execute queries using LINQ, which you are familiar with if you worked with EF Core. And you can also write and execute SQL queries, because it's still a PostgreSQL database underneath.

Here's an example query to return products that have a higher price than the one which is specified:

var store = DocumentStore.For("Connection string to PostgreSQL");

using var session = store.QuerySession();

var products = session.Query<Product>().Where(p => p.Price > 9.99).ToList();

Marten also has support for:

  • Including related documents
  • Batched queries
  • Paging
  • Full text search

Advanced Options With Marten

Marten can utilize the full capabilities PostgreSQL has to offer, notably transactions and indexing. Marten sessions are transactional by default, either all of the documents are persisted together or none of them are. And you can configure indexes on your documents for faster queries.

Marten isn't just a document database on top of PostgreSQL!

You have fully-fledged support for event sourcing with Marten, as well as projections. This makes it a perfect choice for implementing CQRS. But this is a topic for a separate newsletter.

Closing Thoughts

I'm absolutely amazed with Marten and what it has to offer. And PostgreSQL is also my favorite database, so it's like a match made in heaven. I don't get too excited about learning new technologies, but Marten has been an endless source of joy this past week.

I still need to explore a few more topics before I can consider it for production use:

  • Schema migrations
  • Relationships and foreign keys
  • Advanced configuration options

Considering that PostgreSQL is cheaper than most document databases, I think using Marten is an interesting alternative. And if you are familiar with SQL databases, you can still use all of that knowledge.


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