API Versioning in ASP.NET Core

API Versioning in ASP.NET Core

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In the past year, I built and maintained a large public API. The API has dozens of integrations, serving mainly mobile applications.

When your API is serving so many clients, breaking changes are expensive.

So, everything I implemented on the public API had to be planned.

Adding a new field? Forget about it.

Renaming existing fields? Forget about it.

If I wanted to introduce breaking changes, I had to version the API.

Today, I'll show you how to implement API versioning in ASP.NET Core.

Why You Need API Versioning

API versioning allows your API to evolve independently from the clients using it.

Introducing breaking changes to your API is a bad user experience. API versioning gives you a mechanism to avoid exposing breaking changes to clients. Instead of making a breaking change, you introduce a new API version.

What's the definition of a breaking change?

This isn't an exhaustive list, but a few examples of breaking changes are:

  • Removing or renaming APIs or API parameters
  • Changing the behavior of existing APIs
  • Changing the API response contract
  • Changing the API error codes

You can decide what a breaking change means for your API. For example, adding a new field to the response doesn't have to be a breaking change.

Let's see how to implement API versioning.

Implementing API Versioning in ASP.NET Core

Let's start by installing two NuGet packages that we'll need to implement API versioning:

  • Asp.Versioning.Http
  • Asp.Versioning.Mvc.ApiExplorer
Install-Package Asp.Versioning.Http
Install-Package Asp.Versioning.Mvc.ApiExplorer

This allows us to call AddApiVersioning and provide a delegate to configure the ApiVersioningOptions.

builder.Services.AddApiVersioning(options =>
{
    options.DefaultApiVersion = new ApiVersion(1);
    options.ReportApiVersions = true;
    options.AssumeDefaultVersionWhenUnspecified = true;
    options.ApiVersionReader = ApiVersionReader.Combine(
        new UrlSegmentApiVersionReader(),
        new HeaderApiVersionReader("X-Api-Version"));
}).AddApiExplorer(options =>
{
    options.GroupNameFormat = "'v'V";
    options.SubstituteApiVersionInUrl = true;
});

Here's the explanation for the ApiVersioningOptions properties:

  • DefaultApiVersion - Sets the default API version. Typically, this will be v1.0.
  • ReportApiVersions - Reports the supported API versions in the api-supported-versions response header.
  • AssumeDefaultVersionWhenUnspecified - Uses the DefaultApiVersion when the client didn't provide an explicit version.
  • ApiVersionReader - Configures how to read the API version specified by the client. The default value is QueryStringApiVersionReader.

The AddApiExplorer method is helpful if you are using Swagger. It will fix the endpoint routes and substitute the API version route parameter.

Different Types of API Versioning

The most common ways to implement API versioning are:

  • URL versioning: https://localhost:5001/api/v1/workouts
  • Header versioning: https://localhost:5001/api/workouts -H 'X-Api-Version: 1'
  • Query parameter versioning: https://localhost:5001/api/workouts?api-version=1

There are a few other ways to implement API versioning. For example, using the accept or content-type headers. But they aren't used often.

The Asp.Versioning.Http library has a few IApiVersionReader implementations:

  • UrlSegmentApiVersionReader
  • HeaderApiVersionReader
  • QueryStringApiVersionReader
  • MediaTypeApiVersionReader

Microsoft's API versioning guidelines suggest using URL or query string parameter versioning.

I use URL versioning almost exclusively in the applications I'm developing.

Versioning Controllers

To implement API versioning in ASP.NET controllers, you have to decorate the controller with the ApiVersion attribute.

The ApiVersion attribute allows you to specify which API versions that WorkoutsController supports. In this case, the controller supports both v1 and v2. You use the MapToApiVersion attribute on the endpoints to specify the concrete API version.

The route parameter v{v:apiVersion} lets you specify the API version using v1 or v2 in the URL.

[ApiVersion(1)]
[ApiVersion(2)]
[Route("api/v{v:apiVersion}/workouts")]
public class WorkoutsController : ControllerBase
{
    [MapToApiVersion(1)]
    [HttpGet("{workoutId}")]
    public IActionResult GetWorkoutV1(Guid workoutId)
    {
        return Ok(new GetWorkoutByIdQuery(workoutId).Handle());
    }

    [MapToApiVersion(2)]
    [HttpGet("{workoutId}")]
    public IActionResult GetWorkoutV2(Guid workoutId)
    {
        return Ok(new GetWorkoutByIdQuery(workoutId).Handle());
    }
}

Deprecating API Versions

If you want to deprecate an old API version, you can set the Deprecated property on the ApiVersion attribute. The deprecated API versions will be reported using the api-deprecated-versions response header.

[ApiVersion(1, Deprecated = true)]
[ApiVersion(2)]
[Route("api/v{v:apiVersion}/workouts")]
public class WorkoutsController : ControllerBase
{
}

Versioning Minimal APIs

Versioning Minimal APIs requires you to define an ApiVersionSet, which you'll pass to the endpoints.

  • NewApiVersionSet - Creates a new ApiVersionSetBuilder that you can use to configure the ApiVersionSet.
  • HasApiVersion - Indicates that the ApiVersionSet supports the specified ApiVersion.
  • ReportApiVersions- Indicates that all APIs in the ApiVersionSet will report their versions.

After creating the ApiVersionSet, you must pass it to a Minimal API endpoint by calling WithApiVersionSet. You can map to an explicit API version by calling MapToApiVersion.

ApiVersionSet apiVersionSet = app.NewApiVersionSet()
    .HasApiVersion(new ApiVersion(1))
    .HasApiVersion(new ApiVersion(2))
    .ReportApiVersions()
    .Build();

app.MapGet("api/v{version:apiVersion}/workouts/{workoutId}", async (
    Guid workoutId,
    ISender sender,
    CancellationToken ct) =>
{
    var query = new GetWorkoutByIdQuery(workoutId);

    Result<WorkoutResponse> result = await sender.Send(query, ct);

    return result.Match(Results.Ok, CustomResults.Problem);
})
.WithApiVersionSet(apiVersionSet)
.MapToApiVersion(1);

Specifying the ApiVersionSet for each Minimal API endpoint can be cumbersome. So you can define a route group and set the ApiVersionSet only once. Route groups are also practical because they allow you to specify the route prefix.

ApiVersionSet apiVersionSet = app.NewApiVersionSet()
    .HasApiVersion(new ApiVersion(1))
    .ReportApiVersions()
    .Build();

RouteGroupBuilder group = app
    .MapGroup("api/v{version:apiVersion}")
    .WithApiVersionSet(apiVersionSet);

group.MapGet("workouts", ...);
group.MapGet("workouts/{workoutId}", ...);

Takeaway

API versioning is one of the best practices for designing modern APIs. Consider implementing API versioning from the first release. This makes it easier for clients to support future API versions. And it gets your team used to managing breaking changes and versioning the API.

You can use the Asp.Versioning.Http library to add API versioning in ASP.NET Core. Define the supported API versions, and start using them in your endpoints.

Remember to agree as a team what represents a breaking change. This should be well documented in the team's API design guidelines.

My preferred way to implement API versioning is using URL versioning. It's simple and explicit.

And since this is the last issue for the year, I wish you a happy and prosperous new year.

Thanks for reading, and stay awesome!


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